Rowshan Ara Islam, Sazzad Hossain and Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury*Pages 707-721 (15)
Objective: This paper summarizes the isozymes overexpressed in breast cancer, their roles of energy metabolism and cross-talks with other important signaling pathways in regulating proliferation, invasion and metastasis in breast cancer.
Method: Information has been collected from recently published literature available on Google Scholar and PubMed. Where available, in vivo results were given more importance over in vitro works.
Result: Like many other cancers, breast cancer shows increased dependence on glycolysis rather than mitochondrial respiration, the main energy source in healthy cells. Cancer cells alter the cellular energy system in a way that helps minimize level of reactive oxygen species and simultaneously produce enough macromolecules- proteins, lipids and nucleotides for cellular proliferation. The altered system enables the cells to grow, proliferate, metastasize and to develop drug resistance. Certain isozymes of metabolic enzymes are overexpressed in breast cancer and the degree of expression of these enzymes vary among subtypes.
Conclusion: A clear understanding of the variations of energy metabolism in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer would help in treating each type with a very customized, safer and efficient treatment regimen. Anti-cancer drugs or RNAi or combination of both targeting cancer cell specific isozymes of metabolic enzymes mentioned in this article could offer a great treatment modality for breast cancer.
Breast cancer, glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, glutaminolysis, proto-oncogenes.
Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor, InMed Pharmaceuticals, Vancouver, V6C 1T2, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, MONASH University