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Influence of Aldo-keto Reductase 1C3 in Prostate Cancer - A Mini Review

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 7 ]

Author(s):

Nishi Karunasinghe, Jonathan Masters, Jack U. Flanagan and Lynnette R. FergusonPages 603-616 (14)

Abstract:


Background: Aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) is an important oxidoreductase with multiple substrates, that are involved in producing extra-testicular androgens. Its activity is influenced by environmental exposures, as well as by genetic variants. These genetic variants could therefore produce variable testosterone levels and subsequent androgen receptor (AR) activation. This could lead to differential downstream production of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA). As PSA level is used for clinical evaluation of the prostate, these variations could impact prostate cancer (PC) diagnosis, as well as PC management outcomes. This review brings together information with regards to key functions of this enzyme, its relevance in PC, its transcriptional regulation, clinical aspects associated with genetics, differential regulation in cancer and cancer progression, and the types of AKR1C3 inhibitors with future therapeutic value.

Conclusion: Based on these discussions, hypotheses are forwarded for future applicability of this enzyme and its genetic variants in transformational medical practices in PC. Options for the use of personalised AKR1C3 inhibitor drugs for late stage PC are also discussed.

Keywords:

AKR1C3 rs12529, extra-testicular androgen, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate cancer (PC), cancer progression, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), AKR1C3 inhibitors.

Affiliation:

Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, Urology Department, Auckland Hospital, Auckland, Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences (FM&HS), The University of Auckland, Auckland, Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences (FM&HS), The University of Auckland, Auckland

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