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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO): Biology and Target in Cancer Immunotherapies

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 9 ]


Senthamil R. Selvan, John P. Dowling, William K. Kelly and Jianqing LinPages 755-764 (10)


Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a heme-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in the breakdown of non-dietary tryptophan. The biology and immunomodulatory role for IDO is discussed in this review with a focus on its interaction with immune cells and its potential therapeutic target in the clinic. IDO has been revealed to be a central regulator of immune responses in a broad variety of physiological and pathological settings, mostly serving as a multifaceted negative feedback mechanism, to self-regulate immune responses. IDO is considered a therapeutic target in cancer and the use of IDO inhibitors as single agent or in combination with other treatment modalities are under active investigation.


Cancer immunotherapy, combination therapy, indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), IDO inhibitors, immune tolerance.


Division of Solid Tumor, Department of Medical Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, 1025 Walnut Street, Suite 700, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

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