Martin Boegemann, Andres-Jan Schrader, Laura-Maria Krabbe and Edwin HerrmannPages 243-255 (13)
Methods: A comprehensive English-language literature review was performed through PubMed to identify articles and abstract presentations of the major conferences on cancer during December 2014.
Results: In this review we address established biomarkers like prostate specific antigen, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase. Emerging biomarkers like circulating tumor cells, androgen receptor splice variants, cancer stem cells and imaging biomarkers have also been reviewed and placed in the context of prognostic, predictive and surrogate implications in the current field of CRPC. We elaborate on the requirements of good biomarkers and discuss possible future developments of biomarkers in CRPC. Advances in knowledge of biomarkers in CRPC and thus biomarker driven therapy monitoring and up-front therapy decisions may help in the future to tailor treatment algorithms, give information on which therapy to offer and when to continue a given therapy in equivocal scenarios. This could maximize treatment benefit and minimize toxicity.
Biomarkers, castration resistant, mCRPC, novel therapeutics, predictive, prognostic, surrogate.
Department of Urology, Muenster University Medical Center, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, GB A1, D-48149 Muenster, Germany.