A Comprehensive Overview of Targeted Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
[ Vol. 12 , Issue. 7 ]
Z. Mihaly, Z. Sztupinszki, P. Surowiak and B. GyorffyPages 857-872 (16)
Chemotherapy and immunotherapy failed to deliver decisive results in the systemic treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Agents representing the current standards operate on members of the RAS signal transduction pathway. Sunitinib (targeting vascular endothelial growth factor), temsirolimus (an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin - mTOR) and pazopanib (a multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor) are used in the first line of recurrent disease. A combination of bevacizumab (inhibition of angiogenesis) plus interferon α is also first-line therapy. Second line options include everolimus (another mTOR inhibitor) as well as tyrosine kinase inhibitors for patients who previously received cytokine. We review the results of clinical investigations focusing on survival benefit for these agents. Additionally, trials focusing on new agents, including the kinase inhibitors axitinib, tivozanib, dovitinib and cediranib and monoclonal antibodies including velociximab are also discussed. In addition to published outcomes we also include follow-up and interim results of ongoing clinical trials. In summary, we give a comprehensive overview of current advances in the systemic treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Biomarkers, everolimus, renal cell cancer, sunitinib, temsirolimus, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Confidence interval, Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog, Metastatic renal cell carcinoma, Mammalian target of rapamycin, Rat sarcoma, Renal cell carcinoma, Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Vascular endothelial growth factor.
Research Laboratory for Pediatrics and Nephrology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences - Semmelweis University 1st Dept. of Pediatrics, Bokay u. 53-54., Budapest H-1083.
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